Dandruff; Seborrheic eczema; Cradle cap
The exact cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. It may be due to a combination of factors:
Risk factors include:
Seborrheic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin condition. It causes flaky, white to yellowish scales to form on oily areas such as the scalp, face, or inside the ear. It can occur with or without reddened skin.
Cradle cap is the term used when seborrheic dermatitis affects the scalp of infants.
Diagnosis is based on appearance and location of the skin lesions. Further tests, such as skin biopsy, are rarely needed.
Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic (life-long) condition that comes and goes, and it can be controlled with treatment.
Severity of seborrheic dermatitis can be lessened by controlling risk factors and paying careful attention to skin care.
The condition may result in:
Seborrheic dermatitis can occur on different body areas. It often forms where the skin is oily or greasy. Common areas include the scalp, eyebrows, eyelids, creases of the nose, lips, behind the ears, in the outer ear, and middle of the chest.
In general, symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis include:
Flaking and dryness can be treated with over-the-counter dandruff or medicated shampoos. You can buy these at the drugstore without a prescription. Look for a product that says on the label it treats seborrheic dermatitis. Such products contain ingredients such as salicylic acid, coal tar, zinc, resorcin, ketoconazole, or selenium sulfide. Use the shampoo according to label instructions.
For severe cases, your health care provider will likely prescribe a shampoo, cream, ointment, or lotion containing either a stronger dose of the above medicines, or contain any of the following medicines:
Phototherapy, a medical procedure in which your skin is carefully exposed to ultraviolet light, may be needed.
Sunlight may improve seborrheic dermatitis. In some people, the condition gets better in the summer, especially after outdoor activities.
Call for an appointment with your provider if your symptoms don't respond to self-care or over-the-counter treatments.
Also call if patches of seborrheic dermatitis drain fluid or pus, form crusts, or become very red or painful.
Borda LJ, Wikramanayake TC. Seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff: a comprehensive review. J Clin Investig Dermatol. 2015;3(2):10.13188/2373-1044.1000019. PMCID: 4852869
James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM. Seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, recalcitrant palmoplantar eruptions, pustular dermatitis, and erythroderma. In: James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 10.
Weidmann AK, Williams JDL, Coulson I. Seborrheic eczema. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann WR, Berth-Jones J, Coulson I, eds. Treatment of Skin Disease: Comprehensive Therapeutic Strategies. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 219.
Review Date: 5/2/2017
Reviewed By: David L. Swanson, MD, Vice Chair of Medical Dermatology, Associate Professor of Dermatology, Mayo Medical School, Scottsdale, AZ. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 9-1-1 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only—they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997-2010 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.